Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2017
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
3.Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Revenue is recognized when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, the price is fixed and determinable, delivery has occurred and there is a reasonable assurance of collection of the sales proceeds. Revenues for manufactured products, services and products sold to a customer or under a distribution agreement are recognized when the product is delivered to the customer or distributor, at which time title passes to the customer or distributor, provided, however, that in the case of revenues from consigned sales delivery is determined when the product is utilized in a surgical procedure. Once a product is delivered, the Company has no further performance obligations. Delivery is defined as delivery to a customer location or segregation of product into a contracted distribution location. At such time, this product cannot be sold to any other customer. Fees charged to customers for shipping are recognized as revenues when products are shipped to the customer, distributor or end user. Revenues from research grants are recognized in the period the associated costs are incurred.
Cash and Cash Equivalents and Concentration
For purposes of the statement of cash flows, the Company considers any highly liquid debt instruments purchased with a maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents are maintained at financial institutions and, at times, balances may exceed federally insured limits. The Company has never experienced any losses related to these balances and does not believe it is exposed to any significant credit risk on cash and cash equivalents.
Accounts Receivable and Concentration of Credit Risk
Accounts receivable are carried at the original invoice amount less an estimate made for doubtful accounts based on a review of all outstanding amounts on a monthly basis. Management determines the allowance for doubtful accounts by regularly evaluating individual customer receivables and considering a customer’s financial condition, credit history and current economic conditions. Accounts receivable are written off when deemed uncollectible. Recoveries of accounts receivable previously written off are recorded when received.
We regularly review all accounts that exceed 60 days from the invoice date and based on an assessment of current credit worthiness, estimate the portion, if any, of the balance that will not be collected. The analysis excludes certain receivables due to our past successful experience in collectability. Specific accounts that are deemed uncollectible are reserved at 100% of their outstanding balance. In the event that we exhaust all collection efforts and deem an account uncollectible, we would subsequently write off the account. The allowance for doubtful accounts reserve balance was approximately $461,000 and $272,000 at December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Concentrations of credit risk with respect to accounts receivable are limited because a large number of geographically diverse customers make up the Company’s customer base, thus spreading the trade credit risk. The Company also controls credit risk through credit approvals and monitoring procedures.
Inventories are comprised of unprocessed tissue, work-in-process, Avance® Nerve Graft, AxoGuard® Nerve Connector, AxoGuard® Nerve Protector, Avive® Soft Tissue Membrane, AcroVal® Neurosensory and Motor Testing System, AxoTouch® Two-Point Discriminator and supplies and are valued at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out) or net realizable value.
We regularly review the inventory status to determine the expected reserve level required. The Company policy is to monitor the shelf life of its products and reserve amounts based on the expiration date of the finished goods inventory. We also reserve a portion of raw materials based on our historical experience of tissue that fails during the inspection and debridement stage due to medical history, serology compliance or poor quality. Our inventory reserve balance was approximately $812,000 and $960,000 at December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Property and Equipment
Depreciation and amortization is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets as follows:
Major additions and improvements are capitalized, while replacements, maintenance and repairs, which do not improve or extend the life of the respective assets, are expensed as incurred. When assets are retired or otherwise disposed of, related costs and accumulated depreciation and amortization are removed and any gain or loss is reported as other income or expense.
Intangible assets consist primarily of license agreements for exclusive rights to use various patented and patent-pending technologies described in Note 6 and other costs related to the license agreements, including patent prosecution and protection costs. Such costs are capitalized and amortized on a straight-line basis over the underlying terms of the license agreements or estimated useful life of patents, ranging from 5 to 20 years.
Impairment of Long-lived Assets, Including License Agreements
The Company reviews its long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to future undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets. For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, the Company did not record any impairment loss.
Deferred Financing Costs
The Company records as a discount to debt all third-party costs incurred, including equity-based payments, associated with the issuance of long-term debt. The costs are amortized to interest expense over the term of the debt using the effective interest method.
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred. Advertising costs were $204,000, $40,000 and $31,000 for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively, and are included in sales and marketing expense on the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
Research and Development Costs
Research and Development costs are expensed as incurred and were approximately $6.7 million, $4.2 million and $3.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
The Company has not recorded current income tax expense due to the generation of net operating losses. Deferred income taxes are accounted for using the balance sheet approach which requires recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future consequences of temporary differences between the financial reporting basis and the tax basis of assets and liabilities. A valuation allowance is provided when it is more-likely-than-not that a deferred tax asset will not be realized. A full valuation allowance has been established on the deferred tax asset as it is more-likely-than-not that the future tax benefit will not be realized. In addition, future utilization of the available net operating loss carryforward may be limited under Internal Revenue Code Section 382 as a result of changes in ownership.
The Company identifies and evaluates uncertain tax positions, if any, and recognizes the impact of uncertain tax positions for which there is a less than more-likely-than-not probability of the position being upheld when reviewed by the relevant taxing authority. Such positions are deemed to be unrecognized tax benefits and a corresponding liability is established on the balance sheet. The Company has not recognized a liability for uncertain tax positions. If there were an unrecognized tax benefit, the Company would recognize interest accrued related to unrecognized tax benefits in interest expense and penalties in operating expenses. The Company’s remaining open tax years subject to examination by the Internal Revenue Service include the years ended December 31, 2014 through 2016; however, there currently are no examinations in process.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The respective carrying value of certain on-balance-sheet financial instruments approximated their fair values due to the short-term nature of these instruments. These financial instruments include cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses. The fair value of the Company’s long-term debt approximates its carrying value based upon current rates available to the Company.
The Company measures all employee stock-based compensation awards using a fair value method and records such expense in its consolidated financial statements. The estimated value of the portion of the award that is ultimately expected to vest, with forfeitures accounted for as they occur, is recognized as expense over the requisite service periods in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations. The Company estimates the grant date fair value of stock option awards generally on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing models.
With respect to performance stock units (“PSUs”), the number of shares that vest and are issued to the recipient is based upon the Company’s performance as measured against specified targets over the measurement period. The fair value of the PSUs is based on the Company’s closing stock price on the grant date and its estimate of achieving such performance targets. For further discussion and disclosures, see Note 10, “Stock Incentive Plan.”
Earnings (Loss) Per Share of Common Stock
Earnings (loss) per share of common stock (EPS) is calculated for basic EPS by dividing net income (loss) available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period.
There were no dilutive instruments as of December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015. The basic and diluted weighted average shares outstanding were 33,322,767 and 30,702,164 for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Basic and diluted net loss per commons share for all periods presented is computed by dividing the net loss attributable to common shareholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding and common share equivalents outstanding, when dilutive. Potentially dilutive common share equivalents include common shares which would potentially be issued pursuant to stock warrants and stock options. Common share equivalents are not included in determining the fully diluted loss per share if their effect is antidilutive.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, issued a new standard on revenue recognition which outlines a single comprehensive model to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers and supersedes most current revenue recognition guidance, including industry-specific guidance. The core principle of the revenue model is that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The standard is designed to create greater comparability for financial statement users across industries and jurisdictions and also requires enhanced disclosures. The guidance is effective for the Company beginning on January 1, 2018, including interim reporting periods during the year ending December 31, 2018. The standard may be applied retrospectively to each prior period presented or retrospectively with the cumulative effect recognized as of the adoption date. During the quarter ended December 31, 2017, we completed our evaluation of the new standard, including an assessment of existing revenue contracts with our customers on our most significant revenue streams, business practices and processes, and our controls over financial reporting, and we do not believe there will be a material change to the timing and amounts of our revenue, processes or internal controls. During 2018, we will be required to provided additional disclosures in the notes to the consolidated financial statements. We will utilize the modified retrospective method upon adoption.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842)”. This update will increase transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet and disclosing key information about leasing arrangements. This update is effective for annual and interim reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact this standard will have on our consolidated financial statements.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments (Topic 230). The ASU was issued intending to reduce diversity in practice in how certain cash receipts and cash payments are presented and classified in the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows by providing guidance on eight specific cash flow issues. The guidance is effective for the Company on January 1, 2018, including interim reporting periods during the year ending December 31, 2018. We do not believe the adoption of this standard will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230), guidance that a statement of cash flows explains the change during the period in the total of cash, cash equivalents, and amounts generally described as restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents. The guidance is effective for the Company on January 1, 2018, including interim reporting periods during the year ending December 31, 2018. We do not believe the adoption of this guidance will have a material impact on our Statement of Cash Flows.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, “Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting.” ASU 2017-09 provides clarity on which changes to the terms or conditions of share-based payment awards require entities to apply the modification accounting provisions required in Topic 718. ASU 2017-09 is effective for the Company on January 1, 2018, including interim reporting periods during the year ending December 31, 2018. We do not believe the adoption of this guidance will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
The Company’s management has reviewed and considered all other recent accounting pronouncements and believe there are none that could potentially have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or disclosures.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef