Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2020
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Cash and Cash Equivalents and Concentration
The Company considers highly liquid investments with maturities of three months or less at the date of acquisition as cash equivalents in the accompanying consolidated financial statements. The Company has not experienced any losses related to these balances; however, as of December 31, 2020, $48,267 of the cash and cash equivalents balance was in excess of FDIC limits. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had restricted cash balances of $6,842 and $6,000, respectively. The December 31, 2020 and 2019 balances both include $6,000, which represents collateral for an irrevocable standby letter of credit and the December 31, 2020 balance includes $842 which is the balance of the Heights Union Escrow Account (see Note 15 - Commitments and Contingencies).
The following table provides a reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash reported within the consolidated balance sheet that sum to the total of the same amounts shown in the statement of cash flows:
December 31,
December 31,
Cash and cash equivalents $ 48,767  $ 35,724 
Restricted cash 6,842  6,000 
Total cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash shown in the statement of cash flows $ 55,609  $ 41,724 
Inventory is comprised of unprocessed tissue, work-in-process, Avance Nerve Graft, Axoguard Nerve Connector, Axoguard Nerve Protector, Axoguard Nerve Cap, Avive Soft Tissue Membrane, Acroval Neurosensory and Motor Testing System, Axotouch Two-Point Discriminator and supplies and are valued at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out) or net realizable value.
The Company monitors the shelf life of its products and historical expiration and spoilage trends, and writes-off inventory based on the estimated amount of inventory that will not be sold before expiration or spoilage. To estimate the amount of inventory that will expire prior to being sold, the Company reviews inventory quantities on hand, historical and projected sales, and historical expiration trends. The Company’s calculation of the amount of inventory that will expire prior to sale has two components: 1) a demand or consumption based component that compares projected sales to inventory quantities on hand; and 2) an expiring inventory component that assesses the risk related to inventory that is near expiration by analyzing historical expiration trends to project inventory that will expire prior to being sold. The Company’s model assumes that inventory will be sold on a first-in-first-out basis. Due to the nature of the inventory (surgical implants with expiration dates) and the fact that a significant portion of the Company’s inventory is at medical facility consignment locations, estimating the amount of inventory that will expire and the amount of inventory that should be written-down involves significant judgments and estimates.
The Company invests primarily in U.S. Government securities, corporate bonds and commercial paper and classifies all investments as available-for-sale. Investments are recorded at fair value. The Company has elected the fair value option (FVO) for all of its available-for-sale investments. The FVO election results in all changes in unrealized gains and losses being included in investment income in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Derivative Instruments
The Company analyzes all financial instruments with features under Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 480, “Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity” and ASC 815, “Derivatives and Hedging”. The Company also reviews debt agreements for embedded features. If these features are not clearly and closely related to the debt host, they meet the definition of a derivative and require bifurcation from the host. All derivative instruments are recorded on the balance sheet at their respective fair values. The Company will adjust the carrying value of the derivative liability to fair value at each subsequent reporting date. The changes in the value of the derivatives are recorded in the consolidated statement of operations in the period in which they occur.

Property and Equipment
Property and equipment is stated at cost. Additions and improvements that extend the lives of the assets are capitalized, while expenditures for repairs and maintenance are expensed as incurred. Leasehold improvements are amortized on a straight-line basis over the shorter of the asset’s estimated useful life or the remaining lease term. Depreciation is calculated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets ranging from three to seven years.
When depreciable assets are retired or sold the cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and any resulting gain or loss is recognized in operations.
Intangible Assets

Intangible assets are recorded at cost and include patents and patent application costs, licenses and trademarks. Intangible assets are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives of seventeen to twenty years. Trademarks are indefinite lived intangible assets.
Revenue Recognition
The Company enters into contracts to sell and distribute products and services to hospitals and surgical facilities for use in caring for patients with peripheral nerve damage or transection. Revenue is recognized when the Company has met its performance obligations pursuant to its contracts with its customers in an amount that the Company expects to be entitled to in exchange for the transfer of control of the products and services to the Company’s customers.
In the case of products or services sold to a customer under a distribution or purchase agreement, the customers are granted exclusive distribution rights to sell the implants internationally in a territory defined by the contract. These international distributor agreements contain provisions that allow the Company to terminate the distribution agreement with the distributor, and upon termination, the right to repurchase inventory from the distributor at the distributor’s cost. The Company has determined that its contractual rights to repurchase distributor inventory upon termination of the distributor agreement are not substantive and do not impact the timing of when control transfers; and, therefore, the Company has determined it is appropriate to recognize revenue when: i) the product is shipped via common carrier; or ii) the product is delivered to the customer or distributor, depending on the terms of the agreement. Determining the timing of revenue recognition for such contracts is subject to judgment, because an evaluation must be made regarding the distributor’s ability to direct the use of, and obtain substantially all of the remaining benefits from, the implants received from the Company. Changes in these assessments could have an impact on the timing of revenue recognition from sales to distributors.
A portion of the Company's product revenue is generated from consigned inventory maintained at hospitals and independent sales agencies, and also from inventory physically held by field sales representatives. For these types of products sales, the Company retains control until the product has been used or implanted, at which time revenue is recognized.
The Company accounts for shipping and handling activities as a fulfillment cost rather than a separate performance obligation. Amounts billed to customers for shipping and handling are included as part of the transaction price and recognized as revenue when control of the underlying products is transferred to the customer. The related shipping and freight charges incurred by the Company are included in cost of sales.
The Company operates in a single reportable segment of peripheral nerve repair, offers similar products to its customers, and enters into consistently structured arrangements with similar types of customers. As such, the Company does not disaggregate revenue from contracts with customers as the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows does not materially differ within and among the contracts with customers.
The contract with the customer states the final terms of the sale, including the description, quantity, and price of each implant distributed. The payment terms and conditions in the Company’s contracts vary; however, as a common business practice, payment terms are typically due in full within thirty to sixty days of delivery. Since the customer agrees to a stated price in the contract that does not vary over the contract term, the contracts do not contain any material types of variable consideration, and contractual rights of return are not material. The Company has several contracts with distributors in international markets which include consideration paid to the customer in exchange for distinct marketing and other services. The Company records such consideration paid to the customer as a reduction to revenue from the contracts with those distributor customers.
In connection with the Acroval Neurosensory and Motor Testing System, the Company sold extended warranty and service packages to some of its customers who purchase this evaluation and measurement tool, and the prepayment of these extended warranties represent contract liabilities until the performance obligations are satisfied ratably over the term of the contract. The sale of the aforementioned extended warranty represents the only performance obligation the Company satisfies over time and creates the contract liability disclosed below. The opening and closing balances of the Company’s contract receivables and liabilities are as follows:
Contract Balances
Net Receivables Contract Liabilities, Current Contract Liabilities, Long-Term
Opening January 1, 2019 $ 15,321  $ 18  $ 42 
Closing, December 31, 2019 16,944  14  15 
Increase (decrease) 1,623  (4) (27)
Opening January 1, 2020 $ 16,944  $ 14  $ 15 
Closing, December 31, 2020 17,618  14 
Increase (decrease) 674  —  (12)
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts Receivable and Concentration of Credit Risk
The Company evaluates the collectability of accounts receivable to determine the appropriate allowance for doubtful accounts. In determining the amount of the allowance, the Company considers aging of account balances, historical credit losses, customer-specific information, the current economic environment, supportable forecasts and other relevant factors. An increase to the allowance for doubtful accounts results in a corresponding increase in general and administrative expense. The Company reviews accounts receivable and adjusts the allowance based on current circumstances and charges off uncollectible receivables against the allowance when all attempts to collect the receivable have failed. The Company’s history of write-offs has not been significant. The allowance for doubtful accounts balance was approximately $416 and $1,092 at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Concentrations of credit risk with respect to accounts receivable are limited because a large number of geographically diverse customers make up the Company’s customer base, thus spreading the trade credit risk. The Company also controls credit risk through credit approvals and monitoring procedures.
The Company adopted Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-2—Leases (Topic 842) (“ASU 2016.02”), effective January 1, 2019, using the modified retrospective approach. The Company will continue to report financial information for fiscal years prior to 2019 under the previous lease accounting standards.
The Company determines whether or not a contract contains a lease at the inception date and determines the lease classification, recognition and measurement at commencement date. The Company classifies a lease based on whether the arrangement is effectively a purchase of the underlying asset. Leases that transfer the control of the underlying asset are classified as finance leases and all others are classified as an operating lease. Interest and amortization expense are recognized for operating leases on a straight-lined basis. If a change to the lease term leads to a reassessment of the lease classification and remeasurement, assumptions such as the discount rate and variable rents based on a rate or index will be updated as of the remeasurement date. If an arrangement is modified, the Company will reassess whether the arrangement contains a lease. Any subsequent changes in lease payments are recognized when incurred, unless the change requires a remeasurement of the lease liability.
The Company made an accounting policy election to not recognize right-to-use assets and lease liabilities that arise from short term leases, which are defined as leases with a lease term of 12 months or less at the lease commencement date.
Net Loss Per Share
Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing reported net loss by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the reported period. Diluted net loss per share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock of the Company during the reporting period. Diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the sum of the weighted average number of common shares and the number of potential dilutive common share equivalents outstanding during the period. Potential dilutive common share equivalents consist of the incremental common shares issuable upon the exercise of vested share options and the incremental shares issuable upon conversion of the convertible notes. Potential dilutive common share equivalents consist of stock options, restricted stock units (“RSUs”), and performance stock units (“PSUs”).
Due to net losses for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, basic and diluted net loss per share were the same as the effect of potentially dilutive securities would have been anti-dilutive.
Research and Development Costs
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred and were $17,846, $17,514 and $11,773 for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Stock-Based Compensation
The Company measures all employee stock-based compensation awards using the fair value, including stock options, restricted stock, performance stock and stock purchases related to an employee stock purchase plan. The share-based compensation recognized under ASC 718 for years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 was $8,470, $10,304, and $7,606, respectively.
ASC 718 requires companies to estimate the fair value of share-based payment awards on the date of grant using an option-pricing model. The value of the portion of the award that is ultimately expected to vest is recognized as expense over the requisite service periods in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations. The expense has been reduced for forfeitures as they occur.
The Company estimates the fair value of time-based options on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model (Black-Scholes model). The Company’s determination of fair value is affected by the Company’s stock price, as well as assumptions regarding several subjective variables. These variables include, but are not limited to, the Company’s expected stock price volatility over the term of the awards.
The Company estimates the fair value of restricted stock based upon the grant date closing market price of the Company’s common stock.
The Company also has an employee stock purchase plan (ESPP) which is available to all eligible employees as defined by the plan document. Under the ESPP, shares of the Company’s common stock may be purchased at a discount. The Company estimates the number of shares to be purchased under the ESPP at the beginning of each purchase period based upon the fair value of the stock at the beginning of the purchase period using the Black-Scholes model and records estimated compensation expense during the period. Expense is adjusted at the time of stock purchase.
With respect to performance stock units (“PSUs”), the number of shares that vest and are issued to the recipient is based upon the Company’s performance as measured against specified targets over the measurement period. The fair value of the PSUs is based on the Company’s closing stock price on the grant date and its estimate of achieving such performance targets. For further discussion and disclosures, see Note 12 - Equity Compensation Plans.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Management believes the critical accounting policies regarding revenue recognition, inventory and share-based employee compensation affect the Company's more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740) (“ASU 2019-12”), Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes. This amendment simplifies the accounting for income taxes by removing certain exceptions to the general principles and improve consistent application or and simplify accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States for other areas of Topic 740 by clarifying and amending existing guidance. This update is effective for annual and interim reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2020. Early adoption is permitted but requires simultaneous adoption of all provisions of ASU 2019-12. The Company does not expect this standard will have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

In October 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-08, Codification Improvements to Subtopic 310-20, Receivables-Nonrefundable Fees and Other Costs. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. Early adoption is not permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact the standard may have on the Company's consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

On January 1, 2020, the Company adopted Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which replaces the incurred loss methodology with an expected loss methodology that is referred to as the current expected credit loss (“CECL”) methodology. The CECL model utilizes a lifetime expected credit loss measurement objective for the recognition of credit losses for loans and other receivables at the time the financial asset is originated or acquired. The expected credit losses are adjusted each period for changes in expected lifetime credit losses. This model replaces the multiple existing impairment models previously used under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, which generally require that a loss be incurred before it is recognized. The new standard also applies to financial assets arising from revenue transactions such as contract assets and accounts receivables. The adoption did not have a material impact on the Company's condensed consolidated financial statements.
Credit losses for trade receivables is determined based on historical information, current information and reasonable and supportable forecasts. The Company has concluded that the adoption of the standard was not material as the composition of the trade receivables at the reporting date is consistent with that used in developing the historical credit-loss percentages. Further, the risk characteristics of the Company’s customer and composition of the portfolio have not changed significantly over time.
On January 1, 2020, the Company adopted ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurements (Topic 820) Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement. ASU 2018-13 changes the fair value measurement disclosure requirements of ASC 820, “Fair Value Measurement” by adding, eliminating, and modifying certain disclosure requirements. The adoption of ASU 2018-13 did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

On January 1, 2020, the Company adopted ASU No. 2018-15, Guidance on Cloud Computing Arrangements. ASU 2018-15 provides guidance on implementation costs incurred in a cloud computing arrangement (“CCA”) that is a service contract and aligns the accounting for such costs with the guidance on capitalizing costs associated with developing or obtaining internal-use software. More specifically, the ASU 2018-15 provides guidance on accounting for implementation, set-up and other upfront costs incurred in a CCA hosted by a vendor. As of January 1, 2020, this standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

On March 12, 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (ASC 848). The ASU also establishes (1) a general contract modification principle that entities can apply in other areas that may be affected by reference rate reform and (2) certain elective hedge accounting expedients. The elective contract modification guidance in the ASU applies to “contracts or other transactions that reference [LIBOR] or a reference rate that is expected to be discontinued as a result of reference rate reform” (an “affected rate”). The optional amendments are effective for all entities as of March 12, 2020 through December 31, 2022. The Company adopted the guidance upon issuance on March 12, 2020. There was no impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
The Company’s management has reviewed and considered all other recent accounting pronouncements and believe there are none that could potentially have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or disclosures.
"Contract liabilities, current" of $14 were reported in the Company's consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2019 have been combined into "Accounts payable and accrued expenses" in the Company's consolidated balance sheets to conform with the presentation as of December 31, 2020.