Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2023
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements of the Company are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("U.S. GAAP"). All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. The significant estimates affecting the amounts reported or disclosed in the consolidated financial statements include the realizable value of inventories, the valuation of stock-based compensation and the valuation of derivative instruments and the fair value of debt instruments. Other estimates that affect the amounts reported or disclosed in the consolidated financial statements include the allowance for doubtful accounts, the useful life and recoverability of long-lived assets, incremental borrowing rates for operating leases, accounting for income taxes including the realizability of deferred tax assets and the related valuation allowance. The Company bases its estimates on historical and anticipated results, trends, and various other assumptions that management believes are reasonable under the circumstances, including assumptions as to future events. Actual results may differ from those estimates.
Risk and Uncertainties
The Company is dependent on its suppliers, including single source suppliers, some of which are outside of the U.S., and the inability of these suppliers to deliver necessary components of its products in a timely manner at prices, quality levels and volumes acceptable to the Company, or its inability to efficiently manage these components from these suppliers, could have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition and operating results.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist of short-term, highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less from the date of acquisition. Certain of the Company's cash and cash equivalents balances exceed Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC") insured limits or are invested in money market accounts with investment banks that are not FDIC-insured. The Company places its cash and cash equivalents in what they believe to be credit-worthy financial institutions. As of December 31, 2023, $30,524 of the cash and cash equivalents balance was in excess of FDIC limits.
Restricted Cash
Amounts included in restricted cash represent those required to be set aside to meet contractual terms of a lease agreement held by the Company. See Note 9 - Long-Term Debt, Net of Debt Discount and Financing Fees- Other Credit Facilities.
The following table provides a reconciliation of cash and cash equivalents, and restricted cash reported in the consolidated balance sheets that sum to the total of the same reported in the consolidated statements of cash flows:
(in thousands) December 31,
December 31,
Cash and cash equivalents $ 31,024  $ 15,284 
Restricted cash 6,002  6,251 
Total cash and cash equivalents, and restricted cash shown in the consolidated statements of cash flows 37,026  $ 21,535 
Investments consisted of commercial paper and U.S. government securities, were classified as available-for-sale and had maturities less than one year as of each balance sheet date. Investments were carried at fair value based upon quoted market prices. The Company elected the fair value option ("FVO") for all of its available-for-sale investments. The FVO election results in all changes in unrealized gains and losses being included in investment income in the consolidated statements of operations.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Account receivables are recorded at invoiced amounts and do not bear interest. The Company grants credit to customers in the normal course of business, but generally does not require collateral or other security to support its receivables.
An allowance for doubtful accounts is established for estimated uncollectible receivables based on the Company's assessment of the collectability of customer accounts and recognizes the provision in general and administrative on the consolidated statements of operations. In determining the amount of the allowance, the Company considers aging of account balances, historical credit losses, customer-specific information, the current economic environment, supportable forecasts, and other relevant factors. Uncollectible receivables are written off against the allowance for doubtful accounts when all attempts to collect the receivable have been exhausted.
Concentration Risk
Credit Risk
Financial instruments, which potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk, consist principally of cash and cash equivalents, which are held at major financial institutions and trade receivables.
The Company's products are sold on an uncollateralized basis and on credit terms.
None of the Company's customers accounted for 10% or more of the consolidated revenues or accounts receivable during the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021.
Inventories, consisting of materials, direct labor and manufacturing overhead, are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. At each balance sheet date, the Company evaluates inventories for excess quantities, obsolescence or shelf-life.
The Company monitors the shelf life of its products and historical expiration and spoilage trends, and reserves for inventory based on the estimated amount of inventory that will not be distributed before expiration or spoilage. To estimate the amount of inventory that will expire or spoil prior to being distributed, the Company reviews inventory quantities on hand, historical and projected distribution levels, historical expiration trends, and historical spoilage trends. The Company’s calculation of the amount of inventory that will expire prior to distribution has three components: 1) a spoilage-based component that compares historical spoilage rates to inventory quantities on hand 2) a demand or consumption-based component that compares projected distribution to inventory quantities on hand; and 3) an expiring inventory component that assesses the risk related to inventory that is near expiration. The Company’s model assumes that inventory will be distributed on a first-in-first-out basis. Due to the nature of the inventory (surgical implants with expiration dates) and the fact that a significant portion of the Company’s inventory is at medical facility consignment locations, estimating the amount of spoilage,
the amount of inventory that will expire and the amount of inventory that should be reserved for involves significant judgments and estimates.
Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment, net are stated at historical cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Additions and improvements that extend the lives of the assets are capitalized, while expenditures for repairs and maintenance are expensed as incurred. Leasehold improvements are amortized on a straight-line basis over the shorter of the asset’s estimated useful life or the remaining lease term. Depreciation is calculated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets ranging from three to thirty-nine years.
Gains or losses on the disposition of property and equipment are recorded in the period incurred and recorded as general and administrative expenses on the consolidated statement of operations.
Capitalized Interest
The interest cost on capital projects, including facilities build-outs, is capitalized and included in the cost of the project. Capitalization begins with the first expenditure for the project and continues until the project is substantially complete and ready for its intended use. For the years ended December 31, 2023, and 2022, the Company capitalized $5,285 and $6,155, respectively, of interest expense into property and equipment.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company analyzes long-lived assets (asset groups), including property and equipment and definite-lived intangible assets, for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amounts may not be recoverable. An impairment is recognized when the estimated undiscounted cash flows generated by those assets is less than the carrying amounts of such assets. If it is determined that long-live asset (asset groups) is not recoverable, an impairment loss would be calculated based on the excess of the carrying value of the long-lived asset (asset groups) over the fair value of the long-lived asset (asset groups). There have been no impairments of long-lived assets during the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021.
Indefinite-lived intangible assets are not subject to amortization, however, annually in the third quarter or whenever an event occurs or circumstances indicate that the indefinite-lived intangible assets may be impaired, the Company evaluates qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely or not that the fair value of the indefinite lived asset is less than its carrying amount. The Company's qualitative evaluation includes an assessment of factors, including specific operating results as well as industry, market and general economic conditions. The Company may elect to bypass this qualitative evaluation and perform a quantitative test.
Intangible Assets, Net
Intangible assets are recorded at cost and include patents and patent application costs, licenses, and trademarks. Intangible assets with finite lives are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives and reported net of accumulated amortization. Amortization expense is recorded in general and administrative expenses on the consolidated statements of operations. The useful lives of intangible assets are as follows:
License agreements(1): 17 to 20 years
Patents: up to 20 years.
Trademarks: indefinite lived
(1) The Company pays royalty fees based on net sales of the licensed products, which are recorded in sales and marketing on the consolidated statements of operation. The licenses expired during 2023. See Note 5 - Intangible Assets, Net.
Global Nerve Foundation
Periodically, the Company may make contributions to the Global Nerve Foundation ("GNF"), a related party, due to certain executives of the Company being members of GNF's board of directors. The GNF was incorporated in 2021 exclusively for charitable, educational, and scientific purposes and qualifies under IRC 501(c)(3) as an exempt private foundation. Under its charter, the GNF engages in activities that focus on improving the awareness and care of patients with peripheral nerve injuries
through grants, contributions and other appropriate means. The GNF is a separate legal entity and is not a subsidiary of the Company; therefore, its results are not included in the accompanying consolidated financial statements. The Company contributed $0 and $700 to the GNF during the year ended December 31, 2023, and 2022, no amounts were contributed previously. These contributions were recorded in sales and marketing expense on the consolidated statement of operations.
Fair Value
The Company uses fair value measurements to record fair value adjustments to certain assets and liabilities and to determine fair value disclosures. Cash equivalents, investments and derivative instruments are recorded at fair value on a recurring basis. Fair value is defined as the price that would be received upon the sale of an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Valuation techniques used to measure fair value maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. The fair value hierarchy defines a three-level valuation hierarchy for classification and disclosure of fair value measurements as follows:
Level 1 – Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 – Inputs other than Level 1 that are observable, either directly or indirectly, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities; quoted prices in markets that are not active; or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3 – Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities.
Derivative Instruments
The Company reviews its debt instruments in determining whether there are embedded derivative instruments, which are required to be bifurcated and accounted for separately as a derivative financial instrument. Embedded derivatives that are not clearly and closely related to the debt host are bifurcated and are recognized at fair value on the consolidated balance sheet with changes in fair value recognized as either a gain or loss on the consolidated statement of operations each reporting period. The fair value of embedded derivatives are measured based on equity markets and interest rates, as well as an estimate of the Company's nonperformance risk adjustment. This estimate includes an option adjusted spread and an estimate of the Company's risk-free rate.
The Company determines if a contract contains a lease at the inception date and determines the lease classification, recognition, and measurement at commencement date. All operating lease commitments with a lease term greater than 12 months are recognized as right-of-use assets and obligations on a discounted basis on the balance sheet. Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the consolidated balance sheet.
The Company classifies a lease based on whether the arrangement is effectively a purchase of the underlying asset. Leases that transfer the control of the underlying asset are classified as finance leases and all others are classified as operating leases. Interest and amortization expense are recognized for operating leases on a straight-line basis. If a change to the lease term leads to a reassessment of the lease classification and remeasurement, assumptions such as the discount rate and variable rents based on a rate or index will be updated as of the remeasurement date. If an arrangement is modified, the Company will reassess whether the arrangement contains a lease. Any subsequent changes in lease payments are recognized when incurred, unless the change requires a remeasurement of the lease liability.
Certain of the Company's leases include options for the Company to extend the lease term. The exercise of lease renewal option is generally at the Company's sole discretion. Certain of the Company's lease agreements include provisions for the Company to reimburse the lessor for common area maintenance, real estate taxes, and insurance, which the Company accounts for as variable lease costs. The Company's lease agreements do not contain any material residual value guarantees or material restrictive covenants.
Revenue Recognition
The Company enters into contracts to sell and distribute products and services to hospitals and surgical facilities for use in caring for patients with peripheral nerve damage or transection. Revenue is recognized when the Company transfers control of the products and services to the Company’s customers when the product is shipped or when it is delivered to the customer depending on the agreement. Products are primarily transferred to customer at a point in time.
A portion of the Company's product revenue is generated from consigned inventory maintained at hospitals and independent sales agencies, and also from inventory physically held by field sales representatives. For these types of product sales, the Company retains control until the product has been used or implanted, at which time revenue is recognized.
In the case of products or services sold to a customer under a distribution or purchase agreement, the customers are granted exclusive distribution rights to sell the implants internationally in a territory defined by the contract. These international distributor agreements contain provisions that allow the Company to terminate the distribution agreement with the distributor, and upon termination, the right to repurchase inventory from the distributor at the distributor’s cost. The Company has determined that its contractual rights to repurchase distributor inventory upon termination of the distributor agreement are not substantive and do not impact the timing of when control transfers; and therefore, the Company has determined it is appropriate to recognize revenue when: i) the product is shipped via common carrier; or ii) the product is delivered to the customer or distributor, depending on the terms of the agreement. Determining the timing of revenue recognition for such contracts is subject to judgment, because an evaluation must be made regarding the distributor’s ability to direct the use of, and obtain substantially all of the remaining benefits from, the implants received from the Company. Changes in these assessments could have an impact on the timing of revenue recognition from sales to distributors. The Company accounts for shipping and handling activities as a fulfillment cost rather than a separate performance obligation. Amounts billed to customers for shipping and handling are included as part of the transaction price and recognized as revenue when control of the underlying products is transferred to the customer.
The Company operates in a single reportable segment of peripheral nerve repair, offers similar products to its customers, and enters into consistently structured arrangements with similar types of customers. As such, the Company does not disaggregate revenue from contracts with customers as the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows does not materially differ within and among the contracts with customers.
The contract with the customer states the final terms of the sale, including the description, quantity, and price of each implant distributed. The payment terms and conditions in the Company’s contracts vary; however, as a common business practice, payment terms are typically due in full within 30 days of delivery. Since the customer agrees to a stated price in the contract that does not vary over the contract term, the contracts do not contain any material types of variable consideration, and contractual rights of return are not material. The Company has several contracts with distributors in international markets that include consideration paid to the customer in exchange for distinct marketing and other services. The Company records such consideration paid to the customer as a reduction to revenue from the contracts with those distributor customers, which totaled $1,056, $856 and $736 for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Government Assistance
As there is no authoritative guidance under U.S. GAAP for accounting for grants to for-profit business entities, the Company accounts for the grants by analogy to International Accounting Standard ("IAS") 20 Accounting for Government Grants and Disclosures of Government Assistance ("IAS 20"). Government assistance and grants are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the Company has met the requirements of the assistance and there is reasonable assurance that the grant will be received. The Company received government grants of $393, $158 and $1,164 during the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021 respectively. See Research and Development Costs below and Note 14. Commitments and Contingencies.
Costs of Goods Sold
Cost of goods sold includes materials, direct labor and manufacturing overhead costs related to each product sold or produced, including processing, quality assurance labor and scrap, inbound freight costs, as well as facility, warehousing and overhead supporting the Company's manufacturing operations. All of the Company's manufacturing costs are included in cost of goods sold on the consolidated statements of operations.
Research and Development Costs
Research and development costs are charged to expense as incurred. Costs of research and development activities relate to product development, clinical trial expenses, and technical support of products. Costs primarily consist of salaries, wages, consulting and depreciation and maintenance of research facilities and equipment. The Company received certain government grants totaling $393, $158, and $214 which were recorded as an offset to research and development in the consolidated statement of operations during the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively.
Shipping and Handling
All shipping and handling costs, including facility and warehousing overhead, directly related to bringing the Company’s products to their final selling destination are included in sales and marketing expenses on the consolidated statements of operations totaling $5,048, $5,271, and $4,883 for the December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively.
Income Taxes
The Company uses the asset and liability method to account for income taxes in accordance with the authoritative guidance for income taxes. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases, and tax loss and credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates applied to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. A valuation allowance is established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized.
The Company recognizes the effect of income tax positions only if those positions are more likely than not of being sustained. Recognized income tax positions are measured at the largest amount that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized. Changes in recognition or measurement are reflected in the period in which the change in judgment occurs.
The Company identifies and evaluates uncertain tax positions, if any, and recognizes the impact of uncertain tax positions for which there is a less than more-likely-than-not probability of the position being upheld when reviewed by the relevant taxing authority. Such positions are deemed to be unrecognized tax benefits and a corresponding liability is established on the consolidated balance sheet. The Company has not recognized a liability for uncertain tax positions. If there were an unrecognized tax benefit, the Company would recognize interest accrued related to unrecognized tax benefits in interest expense and penalties in operating expenses.
Share-Based Compensation
Share-based compensation is in the form of stock options, restricted stock units ("RSU"), performance stock units ("PSU"), and recognized at, or above, the fair market value of the Company's common stock on the date of grant.
The Company estimates the fair value of each stock option award on the date of grant using a multiple-point Black-Scholes option-pricing model. In addition, the Company measures stock options granted to employees at a premium price based on market conditions, such as the trading price of the Company’s common stock, using a Monte Carlo Simulation option-pricing model in estimating the fair value at the grant date.
The Company estimates the fair value of RSU grants based upon the grant date closing market price of the Company’s common stock.
The fair value of the PSU grants is based on the Company’s closing stock price on the grant date. The number of PSUs that will ultimately be earned is based upon the Company’s performance as measured against specified targets over the measurement period. Expectations related to the achievement of performance goals associated with PSU grants is assessed as of each reporting period and is used to determine whether PSU grants are expected to vest. If performance-based milestones related to PSU grants are not met or not expected to be met, any compensation expense recognized associated with such grants will be reversed.
The Company recognizes expense for all stock-based compensation awards, including stock options, RSUs, and PSUs granted to employees eligible for retirement, as defined within the award notice and allowing for continued vesting post-retirement, over the retirement notice period and continuously updates its estimate of expense over the notice period each reporting period if a retirement notice has not been provided.
The Company recognizes compensation expense related to the Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”) based on the estimated fair value of the options on the date of grant. The Company estimates the grant date fair value, and the resulting stock-based compensation expense, using the Black-Scholes option pricing model for each purchase period. The grant date fair value is expensed on a straight-line basis over the offering period.
The determination of fair value using option-pricing models, as indicated above, is affected by the Company’s stock price, as well as assumptions regarding several subjective variables. These variables include, but are not limited to, the Company’s expected stock price volatility over the expected term of the awards. The Company determines the expected term of each award
giving consideration to the contractual terms, vesting schedules, and post-vesting forfeitures. The Company uses the risk-free interest rate on the implied yield available on U.S. Treasury issues with an equivalent remaining term approximately equal to the expected term of the award. The value of the portion of the award that is ultimately expected to vest is recognized as expense over the requisite service periods in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations. The expense is reduced for forfeitures as they occur.
Net Loss Per Share
Basic net loss per common share is computed by dividing reported net loss by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period without consideration of potentially dilutive securities. Diluted net loss per share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock of the Company. Diluted net loss per share is the same as basic net loss per common share for all periods presented, since the effect of the potentially dilutive securities are anti-dilutive. Potential dilutive common share equivalents consist of the incremental common shares issuable upon exercise of vested stock options, RSUs, and PSUs.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In December 2023, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standard Update 2023-09 — Income Taxes (Topic 740) — Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures ("ASU 2023-09"). The new guidance provides for disclosure on an annual basis of the following: (i) specific categories in the rate reconciliation, and (ii) additional information for reconciling items that meet a quantitative threshold of greater than 5% of the amount computed by multiplying pretax income (or loss) by the applicable statutory income tax rate. The amendment in ASU 2023-09 is effective for the annual periods beginning after December 15, 2025, early adoption is permitted. The Company expects to enhance annual income tax reporting disclosures based on the new requirements.
In November 2023, the FASB issued Accounting Standard Update 2023-07 — Segment Reporting (Topic 280): Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures ("ASU 2023-07"). The new guidance requires disclosure on an annual and interim basis of the following: (i) significant segment expenses regularly provided to the chief operating decision maker ("CODM") and a measure of segment profit or loss; (ii) an amount for other segment items by reportable segment and a description of its composition; (iii) all annual disclosures about a reportable segment's profit and loss and assets as currently required by Topic 280; (iv) clarify if the CODM uses more than one measure of a segment's profit or loss in assessing segment performance and deciding how to allocate resources; and (v) disclose title and position of the CODM and how the CODM uses the reported measures. Public entities with a single reportable segment are required to provide all the disclosures required by this amendment. The amendment in ASU 2023-07 is effective for the annual periods beginning after December 15, 2023, and for the quarters in the years after December 15, 2024, early adoption is permitted. The Company expects to enhance annual segment reporting disclosures based on the new requirements.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In December 2022, the FASB issued ASU 2022-06 - Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Deferral of the Sunset Date of Topic 848 ("ASU 2022-06"). ASU 2022-06 amended Accounting Standards Codification 848 Reference Rate Reform and ASU 2020 - 4, Reference Rate Reform. The amendment in ASU 2022-06 defers the sunset date of Topic 848 from December 31, 2022, to December 31, 2024, after which entities will no longer be permitted to apply the relief in Topic 848. The new guidance provides optional expedients and exceptions for applying U.S. GAAP to contracts, hedging relationships and other transactions affected by reference rate reform if certain criteria are met. The amendments apply only to contracts and hedging relationships that reference the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), or another reference rate expected to be discontinued due to reference rate reform. The Company early adopted ASU 2022-06 in the second quarter of 2023 and the adoption of this accounting standard did not have an impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
All other ASUs issued and not yet effective as of December 31, 2023, and through the date of this report, were assessed and determined to be either not applicable or are expected to have minimal impact on the Company’s current or future financial position or results of operations.